The Meaning of Marriage: A Return to God’s Original Design

November 3, 2015

The word “marriage” in contemporary society carries with it a great deal of controversy as well as a complicated history. Nightly news programs inform their audiences of the most updated developments in the ever-evolving debate. It is safe to say that there is no longer a monolithic consensus about the definition of marriage. In recent days, the discussion has centered around the “right to marriage” and the “rights of people to get married.” While everyone would probably agree that marriage should be entered into voluntarily, is the “right to marriage” the real crux of the controversy? At one end, Liberals advocate for the “equality” and “dignity” that has been denied to underrepresented minorities throughout America’s history, whether the disenfranchisement is along lines of race, creed, or sexual orientation. Conservatives reply by arguing that children have a “right” to a mother and a father. This is why we ought to maintain marriage, they contend; for the sake of the children. In debating what rights people have when it comes to marriage, there must be an understanding about what marriage is in its nature, its irreducible truths.

The Highest Good of Marriage

Marriage is a means by which the greatest good is accomplished, namely the glory of God.

The Westminster Shorter Catechism begins with the question and answer: “What is the chief end of Man? Answer: Man’s chief end is to glorify God and enjoy him forever.”[1]Whether we speak about marriage or any other part of the human experience, we must understand how it glorifies God. Marriage is part of a larger goal for all creation which ultimately brings God glory. But marriage is more than a doxological principle. It is a symbol, a model, and a plan put forward by God for his own glory and for the good of all mankind. Symbolically, marriage serves as the icon of God’s love for his people. “Husbands, love your wives as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her.”[2] Moreover, Marriage plays a central role in the flourishing of society by creating microcosms of God’s economy of love.[3] By saying “yes” to marriage, each partner commits to represent what God has already done in Scripture, albeit imperfectly. When two individuals seek to forge their lives together in a sacred bond of unity, they take on different identities altogether. They are “one flesh.”

The Author of Marriage

What if marriage was more than just the next step in the progression of a relationship? What if marriage meant something far greater than tax benefits, combined incomes, and sexual advantages?

As the debate over the meaning of marriage continues to divide society into “progressive” and “traditional”, “apathetic” and “aggressive”, it is easy to see how understanding the intent of marriage should shape the discussion. What is everyone really fighting about? Some argue that economic benefits should drive public policy in the area of marriage. Others argue that marriage is an inherently religious institution that no government ought to re-define. While both sides seek different outcomes, they are ultimately arguing over the nature and purpose of marriage.

For the progressive movement, marriage is about two people (maybe more) loving one another and having the same access to all of the social benefits (tax benefits, legal status) that have been granted to opposite-sex couples. The rhetoric centers on the need for “equality” and the idea that love is the same no matter who is showing it.

For the conservative movement, marriage is more than just two people sharing mutual affection. In the scheme of society, marriage is about creating families and raising children in an environment that leads to the flourishing of the entire culture. The argument here focuses on the desire to “retain” the traditional definition of marriage practiced by every society until the twenty-first century.

Both sides make claims about the nature of marriage. Is it about love? Is it about society? The answer to both questions is “yes”. However, we first need to go back to the premises that make up the argument for what marriage “is” before we talk about what it “does”. To reach the correct conclusion, we must understand marriage not just by what we see today, but its original design. The first book of the Old Testament unveils God’s design for marriage:

Then the Lord God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him…So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh. And the rib that the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man. Then the man said,

“This at last is bone of my bones

and flesh of my flesh;

she shall be called Woman,

because she was taken out of Man.”

Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.[4] (emphasis added)

God gives the good gift of a wife to Adam, a helper fit for him. Here we see the ontology (nature or being) of marriage in Genesis 2. Marriage is a gift from God for the flourishing of man and woman. Marriage cannot and should not be separated from its original design. If we accept the bible’s claim that Marriage comes from God and serves God’s purpose, then we must conclude that God defines marriage and assigns its goals. In this same vein, accepting the bible’s premises and conclusions about marriage means that the bible must be the final authority to resolve the questions surrounding marriage.

In a modern liberal society, it is easy to acquiesce to the idea of pluralism and relative truth when we discuss important (and controversial) issues like the meaning and value of marriage in society. Even though there will always be diversity of opinion and the need for democratic process, it would be unhealthy to disconnect marriage from its origin and design. Yet the nature of marriage is not the only question being asked by both sides. Also important to many is the role of marriage in society.

The Role of Marriage

Marriage is the institution by which we create family. Family is the institution by which we cultivate virtue and display love. Society is made up of families and marriages that bond husband and wife, parents and children. At the most fundamental level, Marriage is the glue that holds society together.

Given the nature and origin of marriage, should we not simply relegate the institution to its respective religious institutions? Certainly not. Marriage cannot be confined to a status held within religious bodies, though it certainly finds affirmation there. Marriage must go out into society and create new bonds that strengthen the relationships already present. To understand the role of marriage in society, we must again return to the opening chapter of Genesis. “And God blessed them [Adam and Eve]. And God said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.’”[5]

So what is marriage for?

Marriage is about being fruitful in multiplication and exercising dominion over God’s creation.

In both cases, marriage is about promoting and expanding God’s kingdom (and therefore his economy of all things) across the earth. Marriage serves a specific role in civil society by creating the family units which serve as incubators of life for the entire civilization. When we say “yes” to marriage we begin the process of healing society at the most fundamental level; we strengthen the fabric that holds society together.

Why Understanding Marriage Matters For All People

It seems that everyone has an opinion on what marriage is and what it is for. From the Libertarian to the Liberal, marriage is not an issue that is going away anytime soon. The marketplace of ideas is packed to the brim with an innumerable variety of experiences and good intentions. Centralizing the debate on “rights” may muddy the waters when the actual meaning of “marriage” is not agreed upon by the parties in conflict. Moreover, using the child as the primary argument to retain the traditional definition of marriage makes the goal of multiplication seem far more important than all the other goods marriage serves. While it is true that the government should be interested in citizens that are born and how they are raised, marriage should not only be defended because children are a product of that union. Neither one of these elements of the discussion is wrong, but it lends itself more to mental frustration than resolution. Marriage is not only about the husband and wife, but also about children and families. As each partner in marriage fulfills their roles, they create an environment where children are secure and families are strengthened. Marriage leads us to change our priorities and consider others even as we attempt to pursue good efforts in our communities and countries. Marriage is the local economy of God’s plan for human flourishing. Moreover, marriage is about helping society grow at the smallest level which in turn produces a healthy and vibrant community.

When marriage is pursued as it was intended, it accomplishes these goods for the individual and the society. But this is not the terminus. Societal goods bring about flourishing, but marriage serves an even greater mission than this. When two people choose to experience and commit to marriage as God intended, they not only begin the process of flourishing as individuals, but they enter into that holy relationship which blesses the world and brings the greatest glory to God. Indeed, this is “very good.”[6]

[1] The Westminster Shorter Catechism: Question & Answer 1

[2] The Holy Bible. Ephesians 5:25. English Standard Version, Crossway Publishing, 2015

[3] For the Life of the World: Letters to the Exiles. The Acton Institute. This phrase “economy of love” was drawn from the video series put out by the Acton Institute entitled “For the Life of the World, Letters to the Exiles, Episode 2: Love”.

[4] The Holy Bible. Genesis 2:18, 21-25. English Standard Version, Crossway Publishing, 2015

[5] The Holy Bible. Genesis 1:28. English Standard Version, Crossway Publishing, 2015

[6] The Holy Bible. Genesis 1:31. English Standard Version, Crossway Publishing, 2015

Taylor LaJoie
Taylor LaJoie is a recent graduate of Texas A&M University and currently interns at The Heritage Foundation in Washington, D.C.

Taylor LaJoie

Taylor LaJoie is a Research Fellow at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Read More by this Author

Article 12: The Future of AI

We affirm that AI will continue to be developed in ways that we cannot currently imagine or understand, including AI that will far surpass many human abilities. God alone has the power to create life, and no future advancements in AI will usurp Him as the Creator of life. The church has a unique role in proclaiming human dignity for all and calling for the humane use of AI in all aspects of society.

We deny that AI will make us more or less human, or that AI will ever obtain a coequal level of worth, dignity, or value to image-bearers. Future advancements in AI will not ultimately fulfill our longings for a perfect world. While we are not able to comprehend or know the future, we do not fear what is to come because we know that God is omniscient and that nothing we create will be able to thwart His redemptive plan for creation or to supplant humanity as His image-bearers.

Genesis 1; Isaiah 42:8; Romans 1:20-21; 5:2; Ephesians 1:4-6; 2 Timothy 1:7-9; Revelation 5:9-10

Article 11: Public Policy

We affirm that the fundamental purposes of government are to protect human beings from harm, punish those who do evil, uphold civil liberties, and to commend those who do good. The public has a role in shaping and crafting policies concerning the use of AI in society, and these decisions should not be left to those who develop these technologies or to governments to set norms.

We deny that AI should be used by governments, corporations, or any entity to infringe upon God-given human rights. AI, even in a highly advanced state, should never be delegated the governing authority that has been granted by an all-sovereign God to human beings alone. 

Romans 13:1-7; Acts 10:35; 1 Peter 2:13-14

Article 10: War

We affirm that the use of AI in warfare should be governed by love of neighbor and the principles of just war. The use of AI may mitigate the loss of human life, provide greater protection of non-combatants, and inform better policymaking. Any lethal action conducted or substantially enabled by AI must employ 5 human oversight or review. All defense-related AI applications, such as underlying data and decision-making processes, must be subject to continual review by legitimate authorities. When these systems are deployed, human agents bear full moral responsibility for any actions taken by the system.

We deny that human agency or moral culpability in war can be delegated to AI. No nation or group has the right to use AI to carry out genocide, terrorism, torture, or other war crimes.

Genesis 4:10; Isaiah 1:16-17; Psalm 37:28; Matthew 5:44; 22:37-39; Romans 13:4

Article 9: Security

We affirm that AI has legitimate applications in policing, intelligence, surveillance, investigation, and other uses supporting the government’s responsibility to respect human rights, to protect and preserve human life, and to pursue justice in a flourishing society.

We deny that AI should be employed for safety and security applications in ways that seek to dehumanize, depersonalize, or harm our fellow human beings. We condemn the use of AI to suppress free expression or other basic human rights granted by God to all human beings.

Romans 13:1-7; 1 Peter 2:13-14

Article 8: Data & Privacy

We affirm that privacy and personal property are intertwined individual rights and choices that should not be violated by governments, corporations, nation-states, and other groups, even in the pursuit of the common good. While God knows all things, it is neither wise nor obligatory to have every detail of one’s life open to society.

We deny the manipulative and coercive uses of data and AI in ways that are inconsistent with the love of God and love of neighbor. Data collection practices should conform to ethical guidelines that uphold the dignity of all people. We further deny that consent, even informed consent, although requisite, is the only necessary ethical standard for the collection, manipulation, or exploitation of personal data—individually or in the aggregate. AI should not be employed in ways that distort truth through the use of generative applications. Data should not be mishandled, misused, or abused for sinful purposes to reinforce bias, strengthen the powerful, or demean the weak.

Exodus 20:15, Psalm 147:5; Isaiah 40:13-14; Matthew 10:16 Galatians 6:2; Hebrews 4:12-13; 1 John 1:7 

Article 7: Work

We affirm that work is part of God’s plan for human beings participating in the cultivation and stewardship of creation. The divine pattern is one of labor and rest in healthy proportion to each other. Our view of work should not be confined to commercial activity; it must also include the many ways that human beings serve each other through their efforts. AI can be used in ways that aid our work or allow us to make fuller use of our gifts. The church has a Spirit-empowered responsibility to help care for those who lose jobs and to encourage individuals, communities, employers, and governments to find ways to invest in the development of human beings and continue making vocational contributions to our lives together.

We deny that human worth and dignity is reducible to an individual’s economic contributions to society alone. Humanity should not use AI and other technological innovations as a reason to move toward lives of pure leisure even if greater social wealth creates such possibilities.

Genesis 1:27; 2:5; 2:15; Isaiah 65:21-24; Romans 12:6-8; Ephesians 4:11-16

Article 6: Sexuality

We affirm the goodness of God’s design for human sexuality which prescribes the sexual union to be an exclusive relationship between a man and a woman in the lifelong covenant of marriage.

We deny that the pursuit of sexual pleasure is a justification for the development or use of AI, and we condemn the objectification of humans that results from employing AI for sexual purposes. AI should not intrude upon or substitute for the biblical expression of sexuality between a husband and wife according to God’s design for human marriage.

Genesis 1:26-29; 2:18-25; Matthew 5:27-30; 1 Thess 4:3-4

Article 5: Bias

We affirm that, as a tool created by humans, AI will be inherently subject to bias and that these biases must be accounted for, minimized, or removed through continual human oversight and discretion. AI should be designed and used in such ways that treat all human beings as having equal worth and dignity. AI should be utilized as a tool to identify and eliminate bias inherent in human decision-making.

We deny that AI should be designed or used in ways that violate the fundamental principle of human dignity for all people. Neither should AI be used in ways that reinforce or further any ideology or agenda, seeking to subjugate human autonomy under the power of the state.

Micah 6:8; John 13:34; Galatians 3:28-29; 5:13-14; Philippians 2:3-4; Romans 12:10

Article 4: Medicine

We affirm that AI-related advances in medical technologies are expressions of God’s common grace through and for people created in His image and that these advances will increase our capacity to provide enhanced medical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions as we seek to care for all people. These advances should be guided by basic principles of medical ethics, including beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and justice, which are all consistent with the biblical principle of loving our neighbor.

We deny that death and disease—effects of the Fall—can ultimately be eradicated apart from Jesus Christ. Utilitarian applications regarding healthcare distribution should not override the dignity of human life. Fur- 3 thermore, we reject the materialist and consequentialist worldview that understands medical applications of AI as a means of improving, changing, or completing human beings.

Matthew 5:45; John 11:25-26; 1 Corinthians 15:55-57; Galatians 6:2; Philippians 2:4

Article 3: Relationship of AI & Humanity

We affirm the use of AI to inform and aid human reasoning and moral decision-making because it is a tool that excels at processing data and making determinations, which often mimics or exceeds human ability. While AI excels in data-based computation, technology is incapable of possessing the capacity for moral agency or responsibility.

We deny that humans can or should cede our moral accountability or responsibilities to any form of AI that will ever be created. Only humanity will be judged by God on the basis of our actions and that of the tools we create. While technology can be created with a moral use in view, it is not a moral agent. Humans alone bear the responsibility for moral decision making.

Romans 2:6-8; Galatians 5:19-21; 2 Peter 1:5-8; 1 John 2:1

Article 2: AI as Technology

We affirm that the development of AI is a demonstration of the unique creative abilities of human beings. When AI is employed in accordance with God’s moral will, it is an example of man’s obedience to the divine command to steward creation and to honor Him. We believe in innovation for the glory of God, the sake of human flourishing, and the love of neighbor. While we acknowledge the reality of the Fall and its consequences on human nature and human innovation, technology can be used in society to uphold human dignity. As a part of our God-given creative nature, human beings should develop and harness technology in ways that lead to greater flourishing and the alleviation of human suffering.

We deny that the use of AI is morally neutral. It is not worthy of man’s hope, worship, or love. Since the Lord Jesus alone can atone for sin and reconcile humanity to its Creator, technology such as AI cannot fulfill humanity’s ultimate needs. We further deny the goodness and benefit of any application of AI that devalues or degrades the dignity and worth of another human being. 

Genesis 2:25; Exodus 20:3; 31:1-11; Proverbs 16:4; Matthew 22:37-40; Romans 3:23

Article 1: Image of God

We affirm that God created each human being in His image with intrinsic and equal worth, dignity, and moral agency, distinct from all creation, and that humanity’s creativity is intended to reflect God’s creative pattern.

We deny that any part of creation, including any form of technology, should ever be used to usurp or subvert the dominion and stewardship which has been entrusted solely to humanity by God; nor should technology be assigned a level of human identity, worth, dignity, or moral agency.

Genesis 1:26-28; 5:1-2; Isaiah 43:6-7; Jeremiah 1:5; John 13:34; Colossians 1:16; 3:10; Ephesians 4:24